Marque IPSL


The Tsen instrument (for Thermodynamic sensors) was developed at the LMD in the framework of the Stratéole/Vorcore project at the turn of the 2000’s. Figure Tsen : 125-µm diameter temperature sensor used by the Tsen instrument.

This instrument is embarked on stratospheric superpressure balloon flights and provides air pressure and temperature measurements. The Tsen data are used in conjunction with GPS observations performed on board the balloons. This set of measurements has notably allowed to document very precisely the gravity-wave activity in the stratosphere, both in the polar regions and in the tropics.
The Tsen instrument has constantly evolved since then along with balloon projects of the laboratory: Concordiasi in 2010, Stratéole-2 since 2019. The pressure measurements are now obtained with a temporal resolution of 1 Hz, allowing to address atmospheric turbulence.

Figure Tsen : Tsen ultra-light electronics housing machined at LMD.

References :

  • Hertzog, A., et al., Stratéole/Vorcore — Long-duration, superpressure balloons to study the Antarctic lower stratosphere during the 2005 winter, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 24, 2048-2061, 2007. DOI:
  • Hertzog, A., G. Boccara, R. A. Vincent, F. Vial, and Ph. Cocquerez, Estimation of gravity-wave momentum fluxes and phase speeds from quasi-Lagrangian stratospheric balloon flights. 2: Results from the Vorcore campaign in Antarctica, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3056-3070, 2008. DOI:
  • Podglajen, A., A. Hertzog, R. Plougonven, and N. Žagar, Assessment of the accuracy of (re)analyses in the equatorial lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 11,166-11,188, 2014. DOI: